Interactive Video Platforms

Interactive video platform refers synchronous lessons as mentioned in the article from eLearning Industries. They do have advantages as mentioned in the article and from my experience teaching online for four years but they put time constraints on the learner. I felt that my asynchronous graduate courses at Boise State provided plenty of interactions. This was usually done once a week through a discussion board but with many opportunities to view classmates’ comments and share thoughts. After participating for about a month you do get a sense of what that person is like. Sometimes VoiceThread was used instead of a dicussion board and I find this be an effective to personalize the discussion because it allows users to integrate images, audio, and video to communicate ideas.

If online learning is to occur on a global scale I don’t see how live interactions can support people living in different time zones. I see the future being based around asynchronous learning environments that includes different methods of interactions and a community established in their local area where they’ll have opportunities to connect with like-minded people in-person or through live video platforms, for example like an association.

 

Edtech 522 Module 3 Reflection

This week we learned about the symbiotic relationship in a community of inquiry and studied how online teaching tools can be used to support each of the roles within. Community of inquiry states that learning is achieved through a combination of instructor, social, and cognitive presence. The activities and interactions are set up to develop problem-based learning and critical thinking. To look at it from an instructional design perspective the module is a good example of effective learning in an asynchronous environment achieved through the way the module was organized and the application of community of inquiry. The module consisted of the following:

  1. Description of the topics to study and objectives to achieve. It included a YouTube video to introduce one of the topics. The video was a good way to add variation to a predominantly textual-based content.
  2. Reading content: chapters in the course textbook and supplemental journals that focused on online teaching tools. The selection was well thought out. The textbook provided an explanation on the contributing parts of community of inquiry and a chapter that explained using tools to facilitate the process. Journals provided additional examples of how tools were used in different learning situations, which could be further analyzed through the perspective of community of inquiry.
  3. Online tool presentation assignment to research a teaching tool and evaluate how well it could satisfy the community of inquiry and a sample lesson using the tool. The activity was interesting and effective. Each member could self-direct and choose a tool to learn based on preference and relevance. The activity added a social element by reviewing and commenting on each other’s works through VT. In essence we collaborated on the larger topic of online teaching tools but it felt like we were working on individual projects.
  4. Blogging to reflect on topics in a meaningful way.

I thought that using VoiceThread was an effective way to add variation to the discussion board. In the first two weeks, communication was done using text, but VT allowed users to add different forms of media to express their ideas. It added a personal connection, which is particularly beneficial for students studying at a distance. Both have advantages and disadvantages. I would say a discussion board is more efficient in having students interact, provide rich details, and develop high level of thinking.  VT provides a more pleasing presentation by stimulating the audio and visual channels, but may require more training and time to prepare in utilizing the other forms of media.

An experiment performed by the course professor and colleague talked about using a smartphone and Twitter to do microblogging. Students captured graphic design examples relative to their geographic locations and collaboratively critiqued their examples with classmates. The major of role of the instructor was to organize the activity and provide support when it was needed. The experiment brought up the idea of using mobile devices in an authentic context outside of class. The experiment showed that the power of mobile technology can have a strong influence in how learning is done. I feel that this is dependent on specific careers or activities that places emphasis on learning on the road. From a personal standpoint, I have used this method of learning when I took a trip a new area to use the map and learn about destination places and in general every day activities not related to work. In general when I consider myself to do serious type of learning, I prefer to be in one location, preferably my home using a laptop. It allows me to do deeper level of thinking due to less distractions. Also it’s more convenient to work on multiple applications and type ideas using a regular size keyboard mostly due to the nature of the job. I see the internet as the authentic environment in the future where people from different locations tap into it. There are advantages to contextualized learning and learning outside of class but some of those situations don’t require mobile technology. I see mobile technology primarily as a communication tool and organizer to collect bite size information.

Reference:

Hsu, Y.C & Ching, Y.H. (2012). Mobile Microblogging: Using Twitter and Mobile Devices in an Online Course to Promote Learning in Authentic Contexts. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(4).

Instruction: Marine Life Conservation Using Art

fish-bite-fish

Overview: The purpose of this lesson is to help students raise awareness about marine life conservation using art.

Objectives: In the lesson students will collect trash, discuss important themes in marine life conservation, utilize creativity, and techniques in art to create an art project.

Part 1

Introduce the topic using a video, images, or relevant reading passage. Stimulate a discussion with students to share thoughts on some of the central issues. Have students think outside the video and think of other issues relevant to marine conservation in the local area. Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YGBpHYLNtRA

Part 2

Explain to students the purpose of the project (protecting the environment and using debris in a positive manner). Students will take a trip to a local area to collect trash. Note: Equipment that they might need are rubber gloves, a bag or bucket; may also need to consider methods for cleanliness and disinfection.

Part 3

Introduce the word theme and explain what it means. Remind students of the video and discussion, and have them think about what some of the themes might be. Demonstrate examples of artwork created from trash. Consider the theme and critically analyze the work. Give students an assignment either in class or for homework, and have them select an artwork and critically analyze it. Provide a rubric for reference. Have them critique each other’s work.

rubbish-rainbow

Part 4

Students are ready to create their own project! Provide supplemental tools which would help with the process.

Resources:
Environmental education in Hawaii:
http://www.wildhawaii.org/education.html

Samples artwork: Google search: ocean trash into art

SREB online course checklist:
http://publications.sreb.org/2006/06T06_Checklist_for_Evaluating-Online-Courses.pdf

 

Instruction: Distinguishing Similar Sentences

Instruction to help second language learners understand the subtle differences between similar sentences. It’s a skill that students need to master in TOEFL reading passages.

Objective: Students will analyze the highlighted sentence, the choices of similar sentences, and choose the one with the same meaning.  Students will look at each sentence and simplify and identify the key messages and their relationship within the sentence and make notes to record their work. After analyzing all sentences students will choose the correct answer.

Environment: 1:1 online synchronous

Student: First year female university student; second language learner. The student uses the course to develop academic reading skills, not to take a TOEFL test. The student takes a separate English course in the university.

Book: TOEFL iBT Reading: High Intermediate, Publisher: LinguaForum

Step 1: Warm-up discussion: Agree or disagree with following statements.
Thoughts are impossible without language.
Thoughts were influenced by language.

Step 2: Have the student look at the highlighted sentence and do the following: extract the core idea in each part of the sentence and look at the connecting words. Jot these as notes. The student should look at the answer choices and repeat the process.

Highlighted Sentence: Whereas earlier linguists had claimed that thoughts are impossible without language and therefore controlled by language, Sapir and Whorf claimed that thoughts were merely influenced by language.

Example notes:
Simplified 1st part: linguist said no language, no thoughts
Simplified 2nd part: Sapir and Whorf said: you can have thoughts and they are influenced by language
Connecting word: Whereas

Answer choices simplified notes:

  1. linguist said thoughts impossible without language, S and W said they were not influenced by that idea
  2. S and W said language affects thoughts, they felt language and thinking impossible
  3. lingugist said thoughts and language not connected, SW the connection was not influential
  4. L said can have thoughts if you have language, SW said language helps to make thoughts

Step 3: After analyzing have students choose the correct answer. If the answer is correct continue to the next problem. If the answer is not correct, examine and explain where the mistake occurred. The correct choice is #4.

Supplemental Assessment: Have students write a reflection about the activity to get their personal thoughts. In particular students should think about the problems where mistakes occurred and explain what might have led to the mistake. Because these are second language learners, it may be more effective to have them write in their native language if the goal is to better understand the specifics of the problem. This can then be used as data to analyze and categorize to be used for developing future lessons.

BBQ Chx Sandwich Needs Analysis

Busan City Park has an international festival every May, which highlights performances, crafts, and foods from different countries. The smells caught my attention, but unfortunately the tastes didn’t match the smell. But it did give people an opportunity to sample foods from other countries. One tent represented America, and it was also a disappointment in what they offered. They had cheap hot dogs and hamburgers, which didn’t make sense because Korea already has many hamburger and hot dog franchises with products better than what was offered at the festival. Something fresh and different that represented America seemed to be more appropriate. I thought that if I was here next year I would put in an application to participate as a vendor.

The original idea that I had was a was a steak and cheese sandwich, but instead opted for a BBQ pork or chicken sandwich for several reasons. The first reason was price. I’ve lived in Korea for ten years and beef has always been expensive compared to pork and chicken. In addition, a good steak and cheese requires ribeye meat which would further drive up costs. Pork and chicken is not only cheaper, but the taste is familiar to Korean people. Throughout Korea there are many choices in fried chicken and BBQ restaurants. Thus a BBQ pork or chicken sandwich would be an easy transition. The main adjustment would be the unfamiliar spices and sauces, which could negatively affect its appeal. Pho (Vietnamese noodle soup) in Korea has this problem. The characteristics of the soup doesn’t match Korean people’s taste, and so these restaurants are not particularly popular. An American BBQ sandwich may face a similar rejection. (Note: The preparation would include making the sauce from scratch.) For this reason I wanted to do an evaluation to clarify if a market would support the product. If results were positive, it would then be worthwhile to continue this venture. To make the determination I needed answers to the following questions:

  • Is the BBQ sandwich agreeable to Korean people’s tastes?
  • What are some tips for improving the taste?
  • Would they be willing buy the sandwich at a fair and reasonable price?
  • What would be a fair and reasonable price?
  • What is the average age?
  • What is the gender distribution?

This process used to create the sandwich so that it could be tested for feedback was borrowed from websites that specialized in restaurant and food service. The first stage was to conceptualize the menu item. Second was to refine it and have it taste tested by a select number of individuals. In the third stage the sandwich would be further revised until it was ready to be reviewed by people using a survey. The survey was created using an online application accessible by a mobile device and using the link. https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/FYQVVK5

Data collected from the survey would most likely be from people that I know.  An article on statistics recommended a sample size of least 100 to get data that’s useful and accurate. I will probably skip this because of lack of time and resources such as costs for ingredients, equipment, and preparation times. If collecting data was needed to do a formal report, it would then make sense to use the festival as the venue to collect data. There would be many people from different parts of the city converging in one location, a similar reason as to why Orlando is coveted location for restaurant companies to do tests for product development.

References and notes:
http://wornick.com/knowledge/what-consumers-want/
Site talked about needs of consumers in reference to food: taste, freshness, nutrition, and value.

http://www.fastcasual.com/articles/menu-product-development-takes-patience-collaboration/
Article provides additional insight on development process of introducing a new menu item. It’s important to use systematic process; consumer feedback; are they willing buy product

http://www.theretailingmanagement.com/?p=1038
Explains how corporate introduces a new menu item: ideas start in the kitchen; either at corporate office or from franchise owner; sometimes they invite customers to share recipe ideas

http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/assessment/assessing-community-needs-and-resources/conducting-needs-assessment-surveys/main
Overview of a needs assessments:

Boulmetis, J & Dutwin, P. (2011). The ABCs of Evaluation: Timeless Techniques for Program and Project Managers. : Jossey-Bass.

Motivation: A Metacognitive Perspective

Showtime did a one hour documentary on Kobe Bryant to get a personal look inside his life. It showed his basketball roots in foreign countries and the different progressions he made at various junctions leading up to his current position at that time as a superstar of the Lakers.  In one part, Bryant talked about an early playoff experience. L.A. was playing in Utah with the game on the line with few a seconds remaining. A win would mean advancing to the championship and loss would mean the end of the season. Kobe requested the ball, had a clean look, took the final shot, and missed. The season was over. The team flew back to L.A. disappointed. Upon arrival Bryant went directly to a local high school to mentally replay and practice the final shot. He practiced all night until the next morning. Watching this left a feeling of wonder and admiration. The season was over; he should have taken a few days of rest. How does player harness this kind of will under these conditions? It was at this point that an interest to better understand motivation came about. I wanted to see if there was a systematic way to develop it. If students could better understand and control it, they could use it successfully to affect their learning outcomes. To reach my objective I looked at three areas of motivation. First was to to see where motivation comes from and the factors that contribute to it. Second was to see how it could be cultivated from a metacognitive perspective. Light research showed that strategies for developing it focused on instruction rather the individual. That is an educational professional modifies the instruction to affect the student rather teaching the skills to the student so that he can apply it himself. Finally it was important to examine motivation models designed for instruction. This would help to understand it from an instructional perspective and see differences in models and from self-motivation. Two examples are the ARCS model developed by John Keller and a model developed by Dan Pink, which has a framework that’s more user directed.

Motivation is the desire to engage in an activity and founded on a conglomeration of theories that include the expectancy-value and the ARCS model of motivation. Key principles are personal beliefs, interest, needs, usefulness, goals, and satisfaction. Belief means confidence, the determination in one’s ability to complete a task; and value are the things we consider to be important. Each of the principles work together but the amount of influence that one has determines motivation. For example a person who believes in a healthy lifestyle will regularly exercise. This becomes a goal and the associated activities are both useful and satisfy a need. The satisfaction from exercise fulfills an interest. However, if confidence is low, there may be procrastination or in severe cases avoidance.

Motivation is uniquely different for each person as a result of different factors and conditions that drive and influence it. This occurs within the individual, from the environment, and social connections (Barger & Byrd, 2011; Eccles, 2009). These variables can also change the amount of motivation over a given period of time.  A consistent high level of motivation plays an important role to excellent learning. A colleague and I were talking about students and the difficulty in motivating high school students the day after exams. There were usually two groups of students. The academically strong, who were focused and ready to study the day after the exam, and the regular students who were burned out and unmotivated. A key difference is motivation. Even if both groups had less than favorable test results, the academically strong would recover from their disappointments quicker. It could be that these students naturally or consciously exhibit the underlying skills that contribute to motivation (in addition to good studying habits). Keller’s systematic method focused on the instruction rather than the learner because of the difficulty in adjusting for the individual variations.  However, this aspect of motivation should not be overlooked because much of it is determined by the individual. If the problem is not the instruction, a systematic process should be ready so that the individual can make the appropriate adjustments. One way to do this is from a metacognitive perspective.

Metacognition is when an individual tries to understand how his mind works by being reflective and aware of the cognitive processes. Many say that it is thinking about your thoughts. Research has shown that constant monitoring of thoughts helps to accelerate learning. Learners are able to recognize their strengths and weaknesses, adapt their learning, and transfer their knowledge to new contexts (Chick, n.d.). However, John Flavell stated that children are not aware of metacognition. It’s not surprising being that they are not taught to do this kind of thinking. When children learn a subject the focus is to understand and think about the content rather than doing a self-analysis on how the content affects the mind for further improvement. This means that teachers need to overtly teach metacognition to students so that they are able to better recognize and monitor these thoughts. This will provide a transition for students to apply metacognitive principles to motivation. By being aware of and monitoring motivation, student will be able to better control it to help correct problems and fluctuations. My proposed solution has five steps:

  1. Students must understand motivation and the principles that contribute to it both positively and negatively.
  2. They should understand metacognition with examples and exercises for them recognize and practice this method of thinking.
  3. Identify a task or goal.
  4. Assess motivation for that task using the assessment example below.
  5. Apply strategies to fix motivation.

Example Task: _____
Motivation Assessment: (1: strongly disagree 2 3 4 5 strongly agree)
I understand the task and feel good about the level of difficulty.
The task ( information, activities, and skills) used are interesting.
The information, activities, and skills are useful for my personal goals
The level of difficulty was good (challenging but not too difficult).
Fatigue or stress did not negatively affect my motivation.
I can bounce back from disappointments.
There aren’t distractions that could affect my motivation.
Other comments and thoughts:

A key to metacognitive motivation is to monitor it before starting a task. This will help learners to assess and identify potential causes for problems and at the same time to refocus on the task and goals. Learners can organize thoughts and plan a strategy to deal with the situation. If I were to do an example on myself, I would identify the task, think about the overall motivation level for that task, and look at the assessment statements to understand it in more detail.

  1. Task: Teach English to 6th grade second language learners
  2. Motivation level: Feels low — I’d rather be doing something else.
  3. Assess
    1. Interest: teaching basic English to elementary students is not particularly stimulating
    2. Need: it’s my job: as a result it’s important to do the best that I can
    3. Goal: there is a connection but not as direct with my long term goal
  4. Solution
    1. Job: must do it well: be the best teacher that I can be
    2. Stimulate: create a lesson and make it a goal to teach it so that students reach it
    3. Don’t procrastinate: start planning the lesson: once I start I notice that attention is diverted and no longer thinking about the negative
    4. Talk to others: see they how deal with this situation

During the self-analysis students should again look at the principles that affect motivation and where the problem could exist – within the individual, task/instruction, or an outside environment. Practicing this exercise regularly with our daily tasks can be beneficial because it refocuses our thoughts on its purpose and how it aligns with our goals. When we do things in routine without reflecting we may overlook and become careless on the details. After identifying the problem one should develop a plan for making changes to correct the problem. The solution for this motivation model should be determined by the individual because of the individual differences in motivation. However, it’s likely to be more effective by applying one or more of the recommended solutions and working with an educator, friend, or family member who can further guide and provide additional insight. Some of the strategies that can resolve motivation issues include: exploring a curiosity, self direct learning, collaborating with others, setting long term and short term goals, recording progress, and having belief. (add description on effectiveness of exercise: consistent application for week, make note of motivation levles, outcome; task: could be any including those less than eager to do)

In a structured learning environment motivation should be addressed in two ways. One is to use a systematic process for self-motivation and the other is the motivational guidelines added to an instructional system. The self-method allows learners to customize the settings within a structured system. It’s similar to the idea that learning is systematically organized in school and created through collaboration, but how we understand and the path we take to achieve it is slightly different for each individual. Keller’s ARCS model recommended a motivational strategy targeting the instruction in the following manner. 1. Instructors analyze the learners to identify motivational gaps within the four motivation categories (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction). 2. S/he would then refer to the motivation table to plan and design a strategy recommended for a particular category. 3. The instructor would further develop the strategy and integrate it into the instruction. 4. Finally, s/he would evaluate the motivational strategy and its effectiveness in terms of “persistence, intensity of effort, emotion, and attitude (Keller, 1987, p. 31).” (possible to measure?) As an example: Add incongruent or humorous information at the beginning to grab learners’ attention; show how the instruction builds on the learners’ existing skills to add relevance; and provide information on the amount of time and effort required to be successful in the course to help with confidence.

An alternate model proposed by Dan Pink gave learners the freedom to learn in their own way but within the constraints of an organization. Data from experiments showed that extrinsic rewards such as financial incentives were ineffective for improving tasks that required cognitive skills. It even showed that results were the same when the experiment was done in a less affluent country. The key to motivation was to cultivate it intrinsically using autonomy, mastery, and purpose. Unlike Keller’s model which is more instructor-centered, this is learner-centered. As an example, a company gave employees the freedom to work in any way they wanted but with the requirement to finish the stated objective within the given time frame. The result was positive in that the workers were more productive than the results that used extrinsic rewards and management control. This model emphasizes that giving learners the control naturally charges motivation, which then creates an interest, relevance, and satisfaction. This will lead learners wanting to achieve mastery or serving a higher purpose. Adding self-motivation to this model may still be beneficial for the same reason as before: More awareness means better control and better outcomes. Similar to a crop that grows naturally in the wild, if a farmer monitors and takes care of it through cultivation, the results will be better and more consistent. The study explained by Pink was done on adults in a company, but it may possible to replicate in a primary and secondary educational system. EDTECH 532 Games and Simulations at Boise State University could serve as a course model that educators could follow and tailor to their institutions. The graduate level online asynchronous course had the course objectives and all the related activities organized inside a learning management system at the beginning of the course. Students worked on any of the activities in a nonlinear fashion based on their motivation. There were no tests. Instead different kinds of assignments were be the main sources of assessments. When students reached a total of 2000 points, they were awarded an A for the course. Class meetings were held once a week for two hours where students were able to interact with one another to explore virtual worlds and participate in instructor-led discussions. Because this was an online course, students spent the majority of the time working independently on the course topics. For a course like this to be implemented into a primary and secondary system, there would have to be some changes or things to consider such as the questions below, but it could provide some interesting results.

Q: How should remediation be done?
Q: How would instruction and activities be managed if it requires prerequisite knowledge?
Q: How would instruction and class time be managed? EDTECH 532 was an online class which emphasized independent time but a traditional class would have a lot of student contact in one room.
Q: Would cheating be an issue?

Motivation is a powerful force that can greatly impact outcome. It’s dynamic so in order to keep it at high levels one must practice at it everyday.  It’s like a mental exercise. We often hear expressions like: the right attitude, staying focused, visualizing the plan, etc. These are exercises that we do to stay motivated.  The only difference is that by adding metacognition, an individual does a more detailed self-analysis and regularly monitors the thoughts and feelings on the actions that could negatively affect it. It looks at motivation from multiple angles to identify the problem and develop a solution. Motivation resides in the the individual and instruction. In an organized learning environment, a systematic method for developing it has focused on the instruction. One reason is that it’s complex to understand and measure but it may be worthwhile to further study and develop an instrument that could attempt accurately measure it. It could then applied to learning activities to further examine the correlations that could result.

 

References:

Barger, A., & Byrd, K. (2011, May). Motivation and computer based instructional design by Barger and Byrd. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives in Education, 4(1). Retrieved from
http://jcpe.wmwikis.net/file/view/bargerbyrd.pdf

Chick, N. Metacognition. Vanderbilt.edu. Retrieved from
https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/metacognition/

TED Talk. (2009, August 25). Dan Pink: The Puzzle of Motivation . Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrkrvAUbU9Y

Eccles, J. (2009, Dec). Expectancy value motivation theory. Education.com. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/expectancy-value-motivational-theory/

Flavell, J.H. (1979, Oct). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring. American Pyschologist, 34(10), 906-911. Retrieved from
http://www4.ncsu.edu/~jlnietfe/Metacog_Articles_files/Flavell%20(1979).pdf

Keller, J.M. (1979, Summer). Motivation and instructional design: A theoretical perspective. Journal of Instructional Development, 2(4), 26-34. Retrieved from http://www.springer.com/gp/products/journals

Keller, J.M. (1987). Development and use of the ARCS model of motivation design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3). Retrieved from
http://ocw.metu.edu.tr/pluginfile.php/8620/mod_resource/content/1/Keller%20Development%20%20Use%20of%20ARCS.pdf

Larson, M.B., & Lockee, B.B. (2014). Streamlined ID: A Practical Guide to Instructional Design, 167-175. New York: Routledge.

Moderate Results from Game Based Learning

The experiment done by Tsai, Yu, and Hsaio showed moderate effects in game based learning designed to help students learn about electricity.  The study, done on sixth-graders, showed that four students performed well on a test following the game while the other four performed poorly.  The game, which was specifically designed for this experiment, required players to make the most deliveries as possible using a motorcycle that operated on batteries. Players had to effectively calculate the charge of electricity in order to keep their bike running.  Some of the students had difficulty in grasping the concept and applying it in the game. Other students when confronted with this problem neglected to spend the time to read the resources that provided the solution.

Much can be learned as a result of this experiment even if the results were less than favorable.  The data highlighted skills and topics students had trouble with such as calculating the cost of electricity.  By knowing the trouble areas teachers and/or game designer can plan to correct this. One solution is to teach the skill before playing the game with the idea that students can practice and reinforce the skill during gameplay rather than spending time on figuring what to do.  If the goal is to get students to figure this out on their own, it might be beneficial for them to work together in groups or have the game designers embed more clues within the game.  The other problem mentioned in this experiment was that students were not spending the time needed to read materials to solve a game problem.  I think this was due to a couple of reasons.  One is that many of the games that students play do not require them to use reading in the game, and so this could create conflicting expectations.  The game looked similar to a driving game and so the students may have expected the gameplay to be similar.  Students may have found it odd that they needed to do calculations at the service station to charge the motorcycle battery. A few of the students complained that doing this was a waste of time.  It does bring up an interesting point in that people don’t do this when they take their cars to gas stations.  If the calculations are essential it might be better to do different calculations.  For example, if multiple routes are available, have students calculate the distance to find the one that’s most efficient.  To add complexity, roads could have traffic lights or be congested with traffic and so students would need to calculate battery consumption in these situations.  It wasn’t clear from the experiment if students realized that saving money or energy was a key goal in the game. Connecting this action with monetary value or reward may stimulate more interest.  Game designers could slightly modify the game by telling students that they are the business owners and that their goal is to find the most efficient delivery routes and save energy.

The game alone helped some students reach the learning objectives.  But it shows that instructors are also needed when using games for an educational context especially when teaching challenging concepts. They can supervise the learning experience, provide extra support to specific students and spend additional time on troublesome topics and skills.

Reference:
Fu-Hsing Tsai, Kuang-Chao Yu and Hsien-Sheng Hsiao. (July 2012). Exploring the factors influencing learning effectiveness in digital game based learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, Vol. 15, No. 3, 240-250.